What is behind NRF1?

As you all know, I am a true advocate and totally “crazy” about NRF2 protein complex in health and disease. However, I keep learning more and more about “another” guy: NRF1. It turns out that properly up-regulated NRF1 is also critically important for our well-being.  We know that NRF1 is a protein complex, activating genes, responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis (production of new mitochondria).

NRF1 is a whole more than just our mitochondrial booster: 

  • “It is now widely recognized that NRF1 is a multifunctional protein with critical roles in diverse cellular functions…”
  • “NRF1 binds to ~691 genes encoding proteins regulating cellular growth, DNA replication, DNA repair, chromosome organization and mRNA processing. NRF1 binds to promoter sequences of thousands of genes involved in regulating RNA metabolism, DNA damage repair, protein translation, cell cycle progression and more…”
  • “NRF1 has also been found to regulate human telomere transcription..”
  • “NRF1 protects neural stem cells from neurotoxin-induced apoptosis and senescence-aka dementia”..

Bottom line: NRF1 protein complex needs and MUST be upregulated in a healthy manner.

Reference: Cellular Oncology, October 2018


Interplay between NRF1, E2F4 and MYC transcription factors regulating common target genes contributes to cancer development and progression
Kaumudi Bhawe & Deodutta Roy